By Kevin Ryan

Last updated (release 1.01) June 30, 2020.

Please feel free to email me with errors/bugs/improvements.

Some dictionaries provide word pronunciations in IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet). This app improves on those transcriptions by offering:

Transcriptions here are ultimately based on the CMU Pronouncing Dictionary, but modified to render ARPABET in IPA, including modifications to bring the transcription into line with standard phonetics textbooks such as Ladefoged & Johnson, A course in phonetics (7th ed., 2015), and to add allophonic detail, consistent with a narrower level of transcription. The dialect is roughly General American. The feature system follows Bruce Hayes, Introductory phonology (2009). Features are generally binary, classifying every phone as + or -. On this system, features can also have a value of 0 (not applicable). For example, [anterior] is defined only for coronals; for all non-coronals, it is 0. Neither + nor - matches 0.

Variant pronunciations of words can be accessed by clicking on the superscript gray numbers in the IPA rendering. Hover over (or tap) the names of allophonic processes for details about how each rule is applied.